Fluorine is one of the most important essential nutrient elements has prominent place in human health. When fluoride consumed in higher doses (> 1.5 mg/L), through water and food it leads to dental fluorosis or mottled enamel and excessively higher concentration (> 3.0 mg/L) of fluoride may lead to skeletal fluorosis. The severity of fluorosis depends on the concentration of fluoride in drinking water, daily intake, continuity and duration of exposure and climatic conditions.India is one of the 28 countries identified by UNICEF as having a serious health problem associated with fluoride in drinking water. About 62 million people in India suffer from dental, skeletal or non-skeletal fluorosis (Susheela, 2001). Of these, 6 million are children below the age of 14.In India about 20 states (viz., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu etc.) have been identified with a problem of excess fluoride in ground water. Fluorosis continues to be an endemic problem.
Fluorides play a central role in prevention of dental caries. Fluoride is added to drinking water supplies or to salt and/or milk in regions where fluoridation of central water supplies is not possible. As dietary supplements for children these are also available in the form of tablets and drops. The widespread use of these various vehicles for the systemic or topical delivery of fluoride is undoubtedly responsible in large part for the remarkable decline in the prevalence of dental caries. The well established inverse relationship between the fluoride concentrations of drinking water and the prevalence of dental caries has stimulated extensive research aimed at determining the optimum level of fluoride ingestion required to obtain maximum protection against dental caries. Fluoride in excess, anywhere in the ecosystem has been shown to have potential to affect the body systems adversely. A clinical condition caused by ingestion of excess fluoride over a long period is termed as fluorosis. It affects multiple tissues, organs and systems of the body and results in a variety of clinical manifestations, culminating in a crippling condition and or damaged and discolored teeth.
Alain Tressaud Functionalized Inorganic Fluorides. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of Nanostructured Solids
Functionalized Inorganic Fluorides: Synthesis, Characterization & Properties of Nanostructured Solids covers several classes of nanostructured and functionalized inorganic fluorides, oxide-fluorides, and fluorinated oxides such as silica and alumina. Ranging from powders or glass-ceramics to thin layers and coatings, they have applications as more efficient and less aggressive catalysts, UV absorbers, planar optical waveguides, integrated lasers and optical amplifiers, luminescent materials, anti-reflective coatings and high Tc superconductors. With a focus on new types of solids, such as nanopowders, hybrids, mesoporous fluorides, and intercalation compounds, the book covers new synthesis routes; physical-chemical characterizations – including morphology, structure, spectroscopic and optical behaviour; detailed ab initio investigations and simulations; and -last but not least- potential applications.
Fluorides have the toxic potential when used in high concentrations in the drinking water. These effects can be classified as acute, due to a single ingestion of a large amount of fluoride or chronic, due to long term ingestion of smaller amounts known as fluorosis which affects the teeth and bones. There are three important approaches to overcome this problem (1) Health education for creating the disease awareness and about the sources of the fluoride. (2) Treatment of the disease as recent studies conducted in Rajasthan indicated that fluorosis could be reversed, at least in children, by a therapeutic regimen (Calcium, Vitamin C and Vitamin D) which is cheap and easily available. (3) Preventive measures by providing defluoridated water for drinking purpose. So the aim of this book is to collect, analyze and segregate the various aspects of Fluorosis Mitigation and Defluoridation in the literature and present the same in a concise systematic manner.
After the beneficial effects of fluorides in caries prevention were discovered in the 1930s, and that of dietary fluoride supplements in the 1940s, major improvements have occurred in our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and this has resulted in new products and thus, fluoride continues to be the cornerstone for the prevention of progression of dental caries worldwide. The injudicious and arbitrary use of dietary fluoride supplements has caused an increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis and not just a decrease in the prevalence of dental caries. Also, the use of dietary fluoride supplements are fraught with many disadvantages like high cost, poor compliance, improper use, increased risk for fluorosis and limited daily duration of exposure to teeth. Consequently, the role of supplements as a public health measure is limited, but necessary and irreplaceable. Thus, when trying to maximize the benefit of fluoride in caries prevention and to minimize the risk, caution should be exercised when giving advice on the fluoride containing components of an individual’s diet or prescribing dietary fluoride supplements.
Abatement of Fluorides by Fluidized Bed Reactor: Aspen Plus Simulation
There has been an enormous expansion in the use of fluorine compounds in agriculture and industry over the past decade. People are exposed to airborne fluorides because of air pollution caused by aluminum smelting, phosphatic fertilizer, petroleum refining, glass and semi-conductor chips manufacturing industries. Exposure to fluoride gas either in the form of direct contact or inhalation with the skin leads to serious health hazards. Fluorides can lead to serious health hazards even at very low concentrations. Industrial fluorides are mostly released in the form of Hydrogen Fluoride (HF), Sodium Fluoride (NaF) and Calcium Fluoride (CaF2).The most recent abatement technique for fluoride includes the Fluidized Bed method. This study focuses on Fluidized Bed Technology for the abatement of fluorides from gaseous effluents of aluminum industries using Red Mud which is itself a waste generated in the same industry. An Aspen Plus Simulation has also been performed to validate the experimental data as well as the simulation study that was performed will give an overall structure of the various hydrodynamics occurring inside the reactor which will further help in optimizing it.
Skeletal Biology of the Ancient Rapanui (Easter Islanders)
Disseminating what is currently known about the skeletal biology of the ancient Rapanui and placing it within the wider context of Polynesian skeletal variation, this volume is the culmination of over thirty years of research into the remotely inhabited Easter Island. Compiling osteological data deriving from Rapanui skeletal remains into one succinct analysis, this book demonstrates how the application of modern skeletal biology research techniques can effectively be employed to address questions of human population origins and microevolution. Craniometrics and DNA analysis are used to provide indications as to Rapanui ancestral lineage. Evidence is presented in a user-friendly manner to allow researchers and graduates to critically analyse the current knowledge of prehistoric Rapanui skeletal variation. An important resource providing valuable evidence from human biology that modifies earlier archaeological and cultural anthropological views, this book will stimulate further research into the Rapanui.
Application and clinical significance of biological age in dentistry
The postnatal growth starts from birth and continues until adulthood.The maturity is reached when the process of growing has reached into a point,in which it is possible to perform any action and function or to keep certain stability,which is described in relation with the stage of bone morphology on the hand wrist;secondary sexual features;tooth eruption,expressed in terms of skeletal and dental age;the growth age presents a more adequate indicator compared to chronological age;especially when the diagnosis of a patient with altered growth pace needs to be determined,together with the orthopedic and orthodontic treatment plan.The aim is:1.The assessment of dental and skeletal maturation,based on the panoramic view, hand wrist radiographs.2.Evaluation of the relations between the real chronological age and biological one.From this study,assessment of the patient's age through the hand wrists radiographs and assessment of dental age according to the permanent teeth calcification stages,is the most exact and safe method.The assessment of the skeletal age is the most relevant indicator in orthodontic treatment of skeletal class II and class III clinical cases and other abnormalities.
Nutrient Availability and Skeletal Muscle Training Adaptation
Nutrient availability and exercise training are two potent modulators of skeletal muscle adaptation. While the effects of nutrient provision or training alone on muscle adaptation have been well researched, the interactive effects of these two stressors on skeletal muscle adaptation are less well understood, especially in well-trained athletes. Furthermore, until recently, the mechanisms that underlie the changes in muscle metabolism that result from this nutrient-training interaction are largely unknown. Accordingly, the primary aim of the studies undertaken in this book was to enhance our understanding of how nutrient availability in skeletal muscle interacts with endurance exercise to modify skeletal muscle adaptation in already well-trained athletes. In this regard, nutrient levels were manipulated by two different strategies: first by prescribing a high-fat, low-CHO diet, and secondly by manipulating the athletes training schedule. The subsequent training adaptation was studied by examining changes in whole-body metabolism and enzymatic activities as well as changes to selected cell signalling pathways that are related to both nutrient availability and training stimuli.
Early Management of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion
Skeletal Class III malocclusion may be characterized by a prognathic mandible , retrognathic maxilla and / or a combination of the two. This sagittal dysmorphia is further magnified as it encompasses vertical and transverse problems which get aggravated most often with the fourth dimension of time. Longitudinal growth studies conducted by numerous researchers in different parts of the world has established the fact that the morphologic pattern of skeletal Class III is established early in life and maintained thereafter. Once established, the annual growth increments are quite similar to that of Class I individuals. Meanwhile, the dentoalveolar disharmony is aggravated and becomes more severe during this period.
A successful treatment of malocclusions often depends on appropriate orthopedic intervention to correct underlying skeletal discrepancies. The ability to predict the magnitude and direction of a patient's facial growth early in life would enable the clinician to identify those who required interceptive growth identification and to ensure that the appropriate treatment can be rendered while growth is possible, and to forego unnecessary treatment on patients with skeletal discrepancies whose growth pattern would probably lead to correction without orthopedic intervention (Kolodziej et al, 2002). This retrospective study was performed to assess the distribution of mandibular antegonial notch depth and its relationships with craniofacial morphology in different skeletal patterns, for the Iraqi adults (18-25 years of age). The sample included pretreatment digital lateral cephalometric radiographs collected from the Orthodontic Department at the College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. The sample was divided into three groups according to the skeletal classes, and then each group divided according to depth of mandibular antegonial notch into: shallow, medium, and deep groups.
A Companion to Paleopathology offers a comprehensive overview of this rapidly growing sub- field of physical anthropology. Presents a broad overview of the field of paleopathology, integrating theoretical and methodological approaches to understand biological and disease processes throughout human history Demonstrates how paleopathology sheds light on the past through the analysis of human and non-human skeletal materials, mummified remains and preserved tissue Integrates scientific advances in multiple fields that contribute to the understanding of ancient and historic diseases, such as epidemiology, histology, radiology, parasitology, dentistry, and molecular biology, as well as archaeological, archival and historical research. Highlights cultural processes that have an impact on the evolution of illness, death and dying in human populations, including subsistence strategies, human environmental adaptations, the effects of malnutrition, differential access to resources, and interpersonal and intercultural violence
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